Mosbach is located in the north of Baden-Württemberg, about 25 km north of Heilbronn and 35 km east of Heidelberg. It is the county seat and largest city of the Neckar-Odenwald district as well as a middle center for the surrounding communities. It belongs to the administrative district of Karlsruhe, to the European metropolitan region Rhine-Neckar and is the seat of a dual university. In the High and Late Middle Ages, Mosbach was an independent imperial city in the Holy Roman Empire, which is reflected in the city's coat of arms. Mosbach is located on the southern foothills of the Baden-Württemberg Odenwald on the border with building land in the Elz valley, a right tributary of the Neckar, just before its mouth in the Neckarelz district. The city is part of the Neckartal-Odenwald Nature Park and the UNESCO Geo-Nature Park Bergstrasse-Odenwald. The mountain ranges around the city center are the Hardberg and the Henschelberg.